Status of COVID-19 Vaccination Research October 23, 2020

UNDER CONSTRUCTION 10-23-2020

WHO Draft Landscape of COVID-12 Vaccination Candidates

The World Health Organization has created a  Draft Landscape of COVID-19 candidate vaccines. This document is a reference by many websites for articles and reporting.

After downloading the document it’s important to understand the definition of terms and abbreviations. There is 44 vaccination in various stages of clinical evaluation.

Download the Draft Landscape Here

The first column is developer or manufacturer. If the developer is working with a particular institute of university, the name will be listed in addition to the company working on the vaccine.

The second column is the Vaccine Platform. This describes the state of the virus within the vaccination. Inactivated means inactivated vaccines use the killed version of the germ that causes a disease.

Non-replicating vaccines, immunogens are used to induce pathogen-specific host immune responses include killed pathogens, purified or synthetic pathogen structures, or recombinant pathogen products as antigens.

Subunit Vaccines instead of the entire pathogen, subunit vaccines include only the components, or antigens, that best stimulate the immune system.

RNA / mRNA unlike a normal vaccine, RNA vaccines work by introducing an mRNA sequence (the molecule which tells cells what to build) which is coded for a disease specific antigen, once produced within the body, the antigen is recognized by the immune system, preparing it to fight the real thing.

DNA vaccination is a technique for protecting against disease by injection with genetically engineered plasmid containing the DNA sequence encoding the antigen(s) against which an immune response is sought, so cells directly produce the antigen, causing a protective immunological response.

Non-replicating vaccines are based on recombinant viral vectors that are made replication non-competent, meaning that these vectors are sufficient to induce host immune responses but cannot replicate inside host cells.

VLP vaccines, VLP stands for virus-like particles. Virus-like particles are molecules that mimic viruses but are not infectious. They are a very effective way of creating vaccines against diseases such as human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B, malaria, and more.

S protein based vaccines, the spike (S) protein of coronavirus, which binds to cellular receptors and mediates membrane fusion for cell entry, is a candidate vaccine target for blocking coronavirus infection.

Live attenuated vaccines, live vaccines use a weakened (or attenuated) form of the germ that causes a disease.

Replicating Viral Vectors, live attenuated, replicating vaccines, rather than inactivated preparations, have provided the most effective protection against viral infection and disease. A partial list of such vaccines includes measles, mumps, rubella, polio, vaccinia, and yellow fever.

Non-replicating vaccines are based on recombinant viral vectors that are made replication non-competent, meaning that these vectors are sufficient to induce host immune responses but cannot replicate inside host cells.

A T-cell vaccine is a vaccine designed to induce protective T-cells. T-cell vaccines are designed to induce cellular immunity. They are also referred to as cell-mediated immune (CMI) vaccines.

The number of doses and timing are self-explanatory

Route of administration is Inter-muscular (IM) injection, superficial intradermal injection (ID), subcutaneous (SD), or mucosal (oral or rectal).

 

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